Human rights advocacy and the protection of civilians are now a universal affair. Yet, the global landscape is still blighted with the brazen and brutal erosion of respect for international human rights and humanitarian law.

State and non-State parties to armed conflict must comply with the international customary rules of distinction, proportionality and precautions. Schools, hospitals, places of worship and other critical civilian infrastructure must be spared from military force and military use. Constraint should be exercised in the use of explosive weapons in populated areas and political commitments made to this effect.